Middle Columbia River, Bonneville Pool GRP
- Interim update: 2021
- Last full updated: 2015
- Public Comment: GRPs@ecy.wa.gov
Table of Contents
- Spill Response Contact Sheet (Download PDF)
- Non-floating Oil Response Options and Considerations (Download PDF)
- Response Options and Considerations (Download PDF)
- Response Strategies and Priorities (2 Pagers) (Download PDF)
- Resources at Risk
- Economic Resources at Risk (Download PDF)
- Record of Changes (Download PDF)
This chapter provides a description of the physical features, hydrology, climate, and winds, found along the Middle Columbia River (MCR) corridor and includes an overview of the oil spill risks in the region. The Columbia River travels 1,243 miles, originating in British Columbia, Canada and running through Washington, providing a border between Washington and Oregon before eventually entering the Pacific Ocean. Although the Columbia River originates in Canada, the NOAA river mile system used in these geographic response plans (GRPs) begins at the confluence of the river with the Pacific. The Lower Columbia River Geographic Response Plan (LCR-GRP) starts at river mile one and ends at the base of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Bonneville Lock and Dam located at river mile 145.4. The Middle Columbia Region begins at river mile 145.4 on the upstream side of the Bonneville Lock and Dam and is subdivided into four separate GRPs, each a specific pool created by one of four USACE dams in the region: Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day, and McNary.
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The MCRB-GRP encompasses the Bonneville Pool, and covers a 46.6 mile reach of the Columbia River, continuing to run east from just upstream of the Bonneville Lock and Dam (located near river mile 145.4) to The Dalles Lock and Dam (located at river mile 191.6). In Washington, the planning area resides within Water Resource Inventory Area Salmon-Washougal (WRIA 28), Wind-White Salmon (WRIA-29), and Klickitat (WRIA-30). In Oregon, it includes portions of the Clackamas (20) and The Dalles (3) Watermaster Districts. The communities of Cascade Locks, Dallesport, Hood River, Lyle, Mosier, Stevenson, The Dalles, and White Salmon are located within the boundaries of this planning area, as well as portions of Klickitat and Skamania counties in Washington, and Hood River, Multnomah, and Wasco counties in Oregon.
Volcanic activity built up a stratum of mud, ash, and lava in the geologic column in the area now known as eastern and central Washington and Oregon during the Eocene (55.8-33.9 million years ago), Oligocene (33.9-23 million years ago), and Miocene (23-5.3 million years ago) Epochs (UCMP). Basalt flows then covered the area in layers, forming a strong foundation of basaltic rock. Subsequent lava and ash eruptions raised the Cascade Mountains during the Miocene Epoch, and the mountains began to lift when hundreds of volcanoes erupted during the Pleistocene Epoch (2.6 million – 11,700 years ago).
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Towards the end of the Pleistocene (~16,000-14,000 years ago) the Missoula floods battered the gorge over 100 times when the Missoula Lake was repeatedly breached, releasing high velocity debris-filled waters to a height of 900 feet and scouring the landscape with a discharge of 10 million cubic feet per second. This intense geomorphic action formed the sheer basalt cliffs that are now emblematic of the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area (Colorado School of Mines). This series of events has been described as one of the greatest flood occurrences in the history of the earth (WA DNR).
The nearly vertical cliffs of the Gorge are vulnerable to landslides, four of which occurred approximately 500 years ago, covering five square miles near Bonneville where they blocked the Columbia River and created a land bridge. The land bridge was located in the area of the current bridge known as “The Bridge of the Gods” and was perhaps the origin of the name, having been passed down through oral tradition. The dam formed by the land bridge created a lake of approximately the same size as the modern day Bonneville Pool, although within a few months the Columbia River breached this natural dam creating a flood 100 feet deep at Troutdale, OR. The Gorge is still susceptible to landslides and the area continues to be shaped by them and the geomorphology of the Columbia River.
The river runs through the eastern plateau/steppe and then cuts through the Cascade and Coastal Mountain Ranges before entering the Pacific Ocean with much of the Middle Columbia located within the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area. As a result of the changing landscape, the climate surrounding the river changes drastically. The western side of the Gorge includes rainforests with an average annual rainfall of 75 inches. It is a place rich in wildlife, with forests, lakes, streams, wetlands, and waterfalls. The eastern Gorge has an annual rainfall of less than 15 inches, consists of a shrub steppe ecosystem, and is a place of rock bluffs and rolling hills used for farming and ranching.
Humans have also had an impact on the Columbia River. Archaeological evidence shows that nomads were staying in the Gorge over 14,500 years ago, and that settlements were established as early as 11,230 years ago (Bureau of Indian Affairs, 2013). Well before the establishment of white settlements, the Native people had developed the largest trading center in the Northwest at the Long Narrows of The Dalles/Celilo Falls area. Celilo is believed to be the oldest continuously inhabited community on the North American continent (William Dietrich, 1995). The center linked a trade network that extended along the entire Pacific Coast and inland to the Great Plains. Native people living on the Columbia River received a variety of trade goods from all across the region, much of it received in return for one of their most prized resources — salmon. Salmon were central to the culture of the region’s peoples, a part of their religious belief system, providing sustenance and trade goods (R. Ulrich, 2007).
Europeans and Americans began exploring and trading in the Pacific Northwest in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. In 1792, Captain Robert Gray explored the lower river and named it for his ship, the Columbia Rediva (M. Lewis, 1992). In 1805 the Lewis and Clark Expedition traveled down the Snake and into the Columbia River, arriving at The Dalles/Celilo Falls area, which Clark noted as being a “great mart of trade” (M. Lewis, 1992). Within the next 50 years numerous white settlements were established along the river by people following the Oregon Trail or arriving by ship via the Pacific Ocean. The earliest treaties were negotiated with the region’s Native peoples in 1855, and by 1859 Oregon had become a state; Washington followed, with statehood granted in 1889. The first salmon cannery was established on the river in 1866. In 1873 the USACE began modifying the river to aid navigation by removing obstructions, and from 1876-1915 building canals (Bureau of Indian Affairs).
The USACE further shaped the Middle Columbia River into its current form through the construction of dams, beginning with the Bonneville Lock and Dam started in 1934 and completed in 1938, followed by the McNary Lock and Dam finished in 1957, The Dalles Lock and Dam finished in 1960, and the John Day Lock and Dam, completed in 1971 (NW Council). The dams tamed the river’s once notorious rapids and created the sub-sectional pools of the area. Fish lost due to the creation of the dams were ensured by the Mitchell Act (1938) to be replenished by the creation of hatcheries. The dams inundated many of the Native American’s traditional fishing areas and in 1939, In-lieu/Treaty Fishing Access Sites were promised to the affected Tribes to compensate for their losses (Bureau of Indian Affairs). The USACE began constructing In-Lieu sites in 1953 and today there are 31 fishing sites in Zone 6 of the Middle Columbia River, which includes the Bonneville Pool (CRITFC).
By taming the rapids, the dams allowed the river to function as an industrial transportation corridor, with ships running import containers and autos east from Portland, OR and Vancouver, WA through a series of locks, up to the Tri-Cities area (Kennewick, Pasco, and Richland, WA), before continuing east via the Snake River to Lewiston, Idaho, where they eventually travel on to 43 states (PNWA). As of 2014, more than 4 million tons of petroleum products are received at terminals in Portland each year with approximately half of that volume barged upriver to inland ports. The river corridor also provides a route for the transport of grain from farms in the interior of the country to the river’s gateway at the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia River is the number one export route in the nation for wheat and barley, number two for soybeans, and the third largest grain export gateway in the world (Port of Longview).
The dams also provide irrigation and flood control, important to an area with substantial farmland (grains and livestock), as well as hydroelectric power to Oregon and Washington. In addition, the Columbia River Gorge, renowned for its stunning beauty and spectacular history, supports tourism in the area, providing a wealth of recreational opportunities for hiking, fishing, mountain biking, windsurfing, and kayaking.
The Bonneville Pool is 46 miles long, and has a capacity of 537,000 acre/feet (USACE, WA Dept. of Ecology). The area around the reservoir is rural with a handful of towns and unincorporated communities. Despite the diverse change in scenery surrounding the river through each of its various pools, the shoreline habitats remain relatively consistent over the course of the Middle Columbia River. They can be characterized as: exposed rocky headlands, wave-cut platforms, pocket beaches along exposed rocky shores, sand beaches, sand and gravel beaches, sand and cobble beaches, sheltered rocky shores, and sheltered marshes (NOAA 1993).
The Columbia River is the fourth largest river in North America and the largest in the Pacific Northwest. It originates in Columbia Lake, high in the Canadian Rockies, where it first travels northwest, and then turns south entering the United States in Washington, where it eventually turns west and forms the border between Washington and Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean (USGS). The river travels a total of 1,243 miles, providing drainage for approximately 258,000 square miles of the Western United States and British Columbia, with numerous tributaries, both rivers and creeks, adding to the flow along the way (USGS).
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The flow of water in this section of the Columbia River is controlled by outflows from both the Bonneville and The Dalles dams. The Bonneville Pool has an average elevation of 76.5 feet above mean sea level during normal dam operations. Tributary streams entering into the Bonneville Pool include the Klickitat, Little White Salmon, White Salmon, and Wind Rivers in Washington, and Hood River in Oregon (USACE). In Washington, the planning area resides within Water Resource Inventory Area Salmon-Washougal (WRIA 28), Wind-White Salmon (WRIA-29), and Klickitat (WRIA-30). In Oregon, it includes portions of the Clackamas (20) and The Dalles (3) Watermaster Districts.
Salmon-Washougal (WRIA 28): This area includes Salmon Creek, Washougal River and numerous tributary creeks and streams. Annual precipitation in the watershed ranges from 40 to 80 inches. Most of this precipitation arrives during the winter months when water demands are the lowest, and only a fraction becomes available for human and economic uses. Little of the Salmon-Washougal Watershed benefits from snowpack so during the summer when there is little rain naturally, low stream flows are dependent on groundwater inflow. This watershed is one of the most intensely populated basins in western Washington (WA Dept. of Ecology).
Wind-White Salmon (WRIA-29): This area includes the Wind and White Salmon Rivers, and numerous tributary creeks and streams. Annual precipitation in the watershed ranges from 20 inches per year along the Columbia River in southeast Skamania County to 140 inches per year in the Cascade Mountains. Most of this precipitation arrives during the winter months when overall water demands are the lowest. During the summer, snow pack is gone, there is little rain, and naturally low stream flows are dependent on groundwater inflow. This watershed is one of the most intensely farmed basins in southwestern Washington and has seen an increasing population over the past 20 years (WA Dept. of Ecology).
Klickitat (WRIA-30): This area is typically arid, receiving less than 20 inches of rain annually. Most of this precipitation arrives during the winter months when overall water demands are the lowest. During the summer, the snowpack is gone, there is little rain, and naturally low stream flows are dependent on groundwater inflow. At the same time, the demand for human uses, including irrigation, are at the yearly maximum. This means that groundwater and surface water are least available when water demands are the highest (WA Dept. of Ecology).
Climate and Winds
The West-East corridor of the Columbia Gorge through the Cascade mountain range creates a climate interaction between the Washington/Oregon coasts and the interior of the states. Due to the geologic formations and the atmospheric pressure imbalance surrounding this area, strong wind is frequently channeled through the Gorge year round. These conditions, in addition to the scenic surroundings, have made the Gorge a renowned sporting destination for windsurfing (USACE). In the summer, the wind comes predominately from the west. During the winter it oscillates between easterly and westerly directions. This channeled wind is a conduit for air temperature in the surrounding regions as it funnels warm maritime air inland, and cold interior wind towards the coast.
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Western winds carrying moisture in the air from the Pacific are pushed up against the Coast Range, the Olympic Mountains, and finally the Cascade mountains, creating a phenomenon known as a rain shadow. A rain shadow is an area on the leeward side of the mountains which is sheltered from the rain, creating a distinct shift in climate. As the air rises to pass over the mountains it expands and cools, releasing moisture in the form of precipitation on the western flanks. By the time these winds pass over the Cascades there is little moisture remaining, creating the shrub steppe ecosystem that is emblematic of Eastern Washington.
The Bonneville Pool is in the transition zone between the temperate maritime climate west of the Cascade Mountains and the dry continental climate to the east. The Hood River weather station, located at 500 feet above mean sea level, reports that the mean annual temperature in the area is 51°F, ranging from an average low of 34°F in January, to an average high of 68°F in July. Recorded temperature extremes are -12°F and 108°F. Mean precipitation is 32 inches, with two-thirds occurring between November and February. Annual snowfall is 34 inches, with almost half occurring in January.
Tides and Currents
There are no tidally influenced areas within the MCR area. The river’s flow is governed strictly by the various dams, with the USACE determining exactly when and how much water is allowed to pass through the spillways; there are no free-flowing waters.
The Middle Columbia River is plentiful in natural, cultural, and economic resources, all at risk of injury from oil spills. Potential oil spill risks include, but aren’t limited to commercial vessel traffic, road systems, rail transportation, aircraft, recreational boating, and other oil spill risks. This section briefly discusses these risks and how they could impact the GRP planning area.
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Oil Types: Both refined petroleum products and crude oil are transported in bulk within this planning area.
Crude oil and refined products contain a mix of hydrocarbons with varying properties; different types of crude oil and refined products will behave differently when spilled. Recent changes in oil production have led to an increase in the movement of Bakken light crude transported through the planning area via rail, and diluted bitumen from Canada transported through the planning area via pipeline and, to a lesser extent, rail.
Crude oil from the Bakken fields in North Dakota has properties similar to gasoline or diesel, and poses a higher risk of fire because much of it will evaporate quickly into flammable vapors. Unlike gasoline, the heavier hydrocarbons in the crude will persist in the environment after the light ends evaporate or burn. Bitumen from the oil sands in Alberta, Canada, is heavy, almost asphalt-like, until it is mixed with lighter oil products known as diluents to create diluted bitumen. Once mixed, the diluted bitumen will initially float on water after being spilled. Environmental conditions, such as the density of the receiving waters and sediment load of the receiving waters, will affect how long diluted bitumen floats. As the light diluents evaporate, the remaining heavy constituents may sink into the water column. There are specific response actions recommended for non-floating oils, detailed in the Non-Floating Oil Spill Response Tool in the Northwest Area Contingency Plan (NWACP), Section 9412.
Commercial Vessel Traffic: Commercial port facilities in the Middle Columbia River include the Port of Arlington, Hood River, The Dalles, Kennewick, Klickitat, and Skamania. The Dalles Lock reports “an average of 8 million tons of cargo, mostly grain and petroleum products, passing through each year.” Future oil movement along the Columbia River Vessel Route is estimated to reach 566 million gallons/year (annual estimates from 2013 data). The potential for vessel collisions or groundings presents a significant spill risk. Commercial vessels, including tug and barge systems, can carry significant amounts of heavy and blended fuel oils and other petroleum products, increasing the risk for sensitive resources to be impacted if an oil spill were to occur.
Road Systems: Vehicle traffic on roadways pose an oil spill risk in areas where they run adjacent to the shoreline, or cross over lakes, rivers, creeks, and ditches that drain into the Columbia River. Highway 14 in Washington and Interstate-84 in Oregon run parallel to the river throughout the planning area. Bridges over the Columbia River in the Bonneville Pool include Bridge of the Gods (RM 148.2), Hood River Bridge (RM 169.9), and the Hwy 197 Bridge (RM 190.5). A vehicle spill onto one of these bridges or roadways can cause fuel or oil to flow from hardened surfaces into the Columbia River or its tributaries. Commercial trucks can contain hundreds to thousands of gallons of fuel and oil, especially fully loaded tank trucks, and may carry almost any kind of cargo, including hazardous waste or other materials that might injure sensitive resources if spilled. Smaller vehicle accidents pose a risk as well, a risk commensurate to the volume of fuel and oil they carry.
Rail Transportation: Rail companies transport oil via both unit trains and manifest trains in this area. Unit trains include: up to four locomotives, buffer cars, and 118 loaded tank cars transporting oil in 714-barrel (29,998 gallon) capacity USDOT-approved tank cars. Manifest trains include: up to four locomotives, a mix of non-oil merchandise cars, and one or more 714-barrel (29,998 gallon) capacity USDOT-approved tank cars carrying refined oil products, such as diesel, lubrication oil, or gasoline. These trains may include emptied tank cars, each with residual quantities of up to 1,800 gallons of crude oil or petroleum products. Every train locomotive typically holds a few hundred gallons of engine lubrication oil, plus saddle tanks that each have an approximate capacity of 5,000 gallons of diesel fuel. Manifest trains may also transport biological oils and non-petroleum chemicals.
Unit trains carrying crude currently operate on specific routes. Unit trains carrying crude from the Bakken Formation in North Dakota enter Washington State near Spokane, continue along the Columbia River to Vancouver, and then head north along I-5. Similar to the highways systems that run along much of the Columbia River, rail transportation runs closely parallel to the river banks throughout the Lower and Middle Columbia River areas. BNSF Railroad’s Fallbridge Subdivision runs along the Columbia River on the Washington side, while Union Pacific’s Portland Subdivision runs along the opposing bank in Oregon.
Vancouver Energy is a facility proposed for the Port of Vancouver, which if approved, would initially handle one to two crude-by-rail trains per day, and would be capable of receiving an average of four per day.
Aircraft: Several airports are located within the MCR area including the: Cascade Locks State Airport, Columbia Gorge Airport, Arlington Municipal Airport, and Tri-Cities Airport. Landing strips at these airports are used for recreational, commercial, and transit purposes. With airports in the area, the potential exists for aircraft failures during inbound or outbound flights that could result in a spill with a release of jet fuel to the Columbia River or its tributaries.
Recreational Boating: Accidents involving recreational water craft on the Columbia River have the potential to result in spills of anywhere from a few gallons of gasoline, up to hundreds of gallons of diesel fuel. Examples of such accidents include: collisions, a vessel grounding, catching on fire, sinking, or exploding. These types of accidents, as well as problems with bilge discharges and refueling operations, the most typical types of spills to occur, have a negative impact on sensitive river resources.
Other Spill Risks: Other potential oil spill risks in the area include: dam turbine mechanical failures, road run-off during rain events, on-shore or near shore construction activities where heavy equipment is being operated, and the migration of spilled oil through soil on lands adjacent to the river or along creek or stream banks.
Resources at Risk
This section provides a summary of natural, cultural, and economic resources at risk in the planning area, including those resources at risk from oils with the potential to sink or submerge. It provides general information on habitat, fish, and wildlife resources, and locations in the area where sensitive natural resource concerns have been identified. It offers a summary of cultural resources that include fundamental procedures for the discovery of cultural artifacts and human skeletal remains. General information about flight restrictions, wildlife deterrence, and oiled wildlife can be found near the end of this section. A list of economic resources in the area is provided in the appendix.
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This section is purposely broad in scope and should not be considered comprehensive. Some of the sensitive resources described in this section cannot be addressed in Response Strategies and Priorities because it is not possible to conduct effective response activities in these locations. Additional information from private organizations or federal, state, tribal, and local government agencies should also be sought during spills.
This material is presented with enough detail to give general information about the area during the first phase of a spill response. During an actual incident, more information about resources at risk will be available from the Environmental Unit in the Planning Section.
Note: specific resource concerns related to areas that already have designated protection strategies may be found in the “Resources At Risk” column of the matrix describing the individual strategies.
The information provided in this section can be used in:
- Assisting the Environmental Unit (EU) and Operations in developing ad hoc response strategies.
- Providing resource-at-risk “context” to responders, clean-up workers, and others during the initial phase of a spill response in the GRP area.
- Briefing responders and incident command staff that may be unfamiliar with sensitive resource concerns in the GRP area.
- Providing background information for personnel involved in media presentations and public outreach during a spill incident.
- Providing information on benthic and water column species or cultural resources present to assist in planning for oils with the potential to sink or submerge.
Natural Resources at Risk – Summary
This area contains a wide variety of aquatic, riparian, and upland habitats. These habitats support many of Washington’s salmonid species as well as a complex diversity of other wildlife. In addition to those species directly at risk to oil spills, others (due to their life histories and/or behaviors) are unlikely to become directly oiled during a spill incident but may be disturbed by response operations such as cleanup and reconnaissance. Some of the bird species are resident throughout the year, but many others seasonally migrate through the area.
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Several of the species found in this area have been classified under the Federal Endangered Species Act or by the Washington State Fish and Wildlife commission. Classification types are listed below:
- Federal Endangered (FE)
- Federal Threatened (FT)
- Federal Candidate (FC)
- State Endangered (SE)
- State Threatened (ST)
- State Sensitive (SS)
Federal and State listed species (subspecies shown in parenthesis) that may occur within this area include:
- American white pelican [ST(WA)]
- common loon [SS(WA)]
- greater sage grouse [ST(WA)]
- northern spotted owl [FT/SE(WA)/ST(OR)]
- sandhill crane [SE(WA)]
- yellow billed cuckoo [FT/SE(WA)]
- Fisher [FC/SE(WA)]
- gray squirrel (western) [ST(WA)]
- gray wolf [FE/SE(WA)]
- wolverine [FC/ST(OR)]
- bull trout [FT]
- chinook salmon (lower Columbia) [FT]; – Fall (Snake River) [FT/ST(OR)]; -Spring/Summer (Snake River) [FT/ST(OR)]; -Spring (upper Columbia) [FE]; (upper Willamette River) [FT])
- chum salmon (Columbia River) [FT]
- coho salmon (lower Columbia) [FT/SE(OR)]
- sockeye salmon (Snake River) [FE]
- steelhead trout (lower Columbia) [FT]; (middle Columbia) [FT]; (Snake River) [FT]; (upper Columbia) [FT]; upper Willamette River [FT]
- Larch Mountain salamander [SS(WA)]
- western pond turtle [SE(WA)]
These are the specific areas, occupied by an endangered or threatened species at the time it was listed, that contain the physical or biological features that are essential to the conservation of that species – and that may need special management or protection. Critical habitat may also include areas that were not occupied by the species at the time of listing but are essential to its conservation. The following species have federally designated critical habitats within this area:
- bull trout
- chinook salmon (lower Columbia River); – Fall (Snake River); -Spring (upper Columbia River)
- chum salmon (Columbia River)
- coho salmon (lower Columbia River)
- northern spotted owl
- sockeye salmon -Spring/Summer (Snake River)
- steelhead (lower Columbia River); (middle Columbia River); (upper Columbia River); (Snake River)
General Resource Concerns
- Wetlands in this region are all fresh water and range from seasonal open marshes to forested swamps along rivers and streams. All wetland types support a diverse array of amphibian, bird, insect and fish and wildlife species.
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- Side channels and impounded areas provide feeding and resting areas for waterfowl and herons and are important rearing areas for juvenile fish.
- Several rivers and smaller tributary streams flow into the mainstem of the Columbia River within this area. These act as important salmon migration routes and spawning areas, as well as providing rearing habitat for juvenile salmonids and resident fish species. The associated riparian scrub and woodlands play a crucial role in supporting a large diversity and abundance of songbird species as breeding, migrating, and overwintering habitat.
- Islands provide important nesting areas for a variety of bird species, as well as habitat for a variety of mammals.
- Stream mouths are concentration areas for anadromous fish and are feeding areas for a variety of birds.
- Numerous habitat restoration sites exist along the middle Columbia River and its tributaries. Often, significant resources have been invested in these locations to improve stream conditions specific to salmon recovery.
- Subsurface Habitats The shallow subsurface habitats that occur within this region include:
- Fine sediments (mud/silt/sand) – Associated with slow/still water flows. May have aquatic vegetation present.
- Animals associated with these areas may be: salmonid and resident fishes; birds (dabbling ducks); semi-aquatic mammals (muskrat, beaver, etc.); shellfish (freshwater clams); amphibians and reptiles (frogs, newts, salamanders, turtles, etc.); insects caddis flies, mayflies, dragonflies, and stoneflies). Many other animals also utilize these areas for foraging.
- Coarse sediments (gravel/cobble) – Associated with moderate water flow. May have aquatic vegetation present.
- Animals associated with these areas may be: salmonid and resident fishes; birds (dippers, harlequin ducks); semi-aquatic mammals (muskrat, beaver, etc.); shellfish (pearlshell mussels, crayfish); amphibians and reptiles (tailed frogs, torrent salamanders; insects caddis flies, stoneflies). Many other animals also utilize these areas for foraging.
- Bedrock – Associated with fast water with little or no deposition of loose bed materials. Aquatic vegetation not typically present.
- Animals associated with these areas tend to be mostly cold-water (salmonid) fishes, birds (dippers, harlequin ducks), and amphibians (torrent salamanders).
- Fine sediments (mud/silt/sand) – Associated with slow/still water flows. May have aquatic vegetation present.
- Varioussalmonids (both juvenile and adults) are present in the river above the Bonneville Dam throughout the year. Millions of juvenile salmonids move downstream past the dam to use estuarine waters as a rearing and foraging area as they prepare for migration to the ocean. Returning adult salmonids of various types and stocks support significant tribal and recreational fisheries.
- Anadromous fish (other than salmon) in this region include American shad, and Pacific lamprey.
- Resident fish present year-round in the river include white sturgeon, walleye, largemouth bass, crappie, perch, bullheads, and northern pike minnow.
- Significant waterfowl concentrations exist throughout this GRP region from fall through spring. Hundreds of thousands of geese, swans and dabbling ducks may occupy this region during peak periods. Resident and migratory waterfowl heavily utilize the islands, backwaters, wetlands and adjacent uplands of the region from fall through spring. Numerous islands in this sub-region also provide nesting habitat for resident waterfowl.
- Bald eagles andgreat blue herons are nesting residents and may be found year-round throughout the region. Peregrine falcons are commonly found as winter and spring visitors. Other raptors, including golden eagles, osprey, northern harrier, northern spotted owl, and burrowing owl are also regularly found in this area.
- Resident and migratory songbirds heavily utilize riparian habitats year-round and are susceptible to response activity that disturb riparian vegetation.
- Mammals common to the region include managed species such as mule and black-tailed deer, bear, etc. Other mammals present include semi-aquatic species such as beaver, muskrat, river otter, mink and raccoon. Because of their habitat preferences, these latter species are vulnerable to contact with spilled oil.
Specific Geographic Areas of Concern – Overview
Columbia River, Lake Bonneville/Bonneville Pool (~RM 146-192).
- Rock Creek Cove and Ashes Lake (~RM 149). Extensive wetland and impounded water habitat. Concentration area for migratory and wintering Raptor nests associated with Ashes Lake. Salmonid concentration area. Amphibian habitat (including larch mountain salamander [SS (WA)].
- Lower Wind River (~RM 154). Forested wetlands and impounded areas. Salmonids (including chinook [FT] and steelhead trout [FT]. Waterfowl nesting area.
- Drano Lake (~RM 162). Impounded area, salmonid and waterfowl concentrations, raptor nesting, loons [SS (WA)]. Fish Hatchery.
- Lower White Salmon River (~RM 168). Impounded area. Migratory and wintering waterfowl, raptors, and salmonids (including bull trout [FT], chinook [FT], and steelhead [FT]).
- Rowland and Look Lakes (~RM 176). Impounded areas. Wetlands. Waterfowl concentrations area, raptor nesting, salmonids and resident fish.
- Chamberlain/McClure Lakes (~RM 179). Impounded areas. Wetlands. Waterfowl concentrations area, raptor nesting, salmonids and resident fish. State Park (Lake McClure).
- Lower Klickitat River (~RM 180). Forested wetland and impounded area. Salmonids (including bull trout [FT] and steelhead trout [FT]), resident fish; waterfowl concentration and wintering area. County park.
Specific Geographic Areas of Concern – Maps and Descriptions
Figure 1: Geographic areas of concern on the Columbia River, between the Bonneville and The Dalles Dams. See text for detailed site descriptions.
Cultural Resources at Risk – Summary
Culturally significant resources are present within the planning area. Information regarding the type and location of cultural resources is maintained by the Washington Department of Archeology and Historic Preservation (WDAHP). This sensitive information is made available to the Washington Department of Ecology for oil spill preparedness and response planning. The Tribal Historic Preservation Offices (THPOs) or Cultural Resource Departments of local tribes (see Table 6‑1) may also be able to provide information on cultural resources at risk in the area and should be contacted, along with WDAHP, through normal trustee notification processes when significant oil spills, or smaller spills above reportable thresholds, occur in the area.
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During a spill response, after the Unified Command is established, information related to specific archeological concerns will be coordinated through the Environmental Unit. In order to ensure that tactical response strategies do not inadvertently harm culturally sensitive sites, WDAHP should be consulted before disturbing any soil or sediment during a response action, including submerged soils or sediments. WDAHP and/or the Tribal governments may assign a person, or provide a list of professional archeologists that can be contracted, to monitor response activities and cleanup operations for the protection of cultural resources at risk. Due to the sensitive nature of such information, details regarding the location and type of cultural resources present are not included in this document.
Table 6-1: MCRB GRP Cultural Contacts
|Washington Department of Archeology and Historic Preservation (WDAHP)||360- 586-306||Rob.Whitlam@dahp.wa.gov|
State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO)
|Cowlitz Indian Tribe
Cultural Resources Director
|Nez Perce Tribe
Spill Response and Water Quality
|Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla
|Warm Springs Confederated Tribesemail@example.com|
|Confederated Tribes of the Yakama Indian Nation, THPOfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, THPOemail@example.com|
Discovery of Human Skeletal Remains
Any human remains, burial sites, or burial-related materials that are discovered during a spill response must be treated with respect at all times (photographing human remains is prohibited to all except the appropriate authorities). Refer to National Historic Preservation Act Compliance Guidelines (NWACP Section 9403) during an emergency response.
Procedures for the Discovery of Cultural Resources
If any person monitoring work activities or involved in spill response believes that they have encountered cultural resources, all workers must stop immediately and notify the Unified Command and Cultural Resource Specialist. The area of work stoppage must be adequate to provide for the security, protection, and integrity of the material or artifact(s) discovered.
Prehistoric Cultural Resources (May include, but are not limited to, any of the following items):
- Lithic debitage (stone chips and other tool-making byproducts)
- Flaked or ground stone tools
- Exotic rock, minerals, or quarries
- Concentrations of organically stained sediments, charcoal, or ash
- Fire-modified rock
- Rock alignments or rock structures
- Bone (burned, modified, or in association with other bone, artifacts, or features)
- Shell or shell fragments
- Petroglyphs and pictographs
- Fish weirs, fish traps, and prehistoric water craft
- Culturally modified trees
- Physical locations or features (traditional cultural properties)
- Submerged villages sites or artifacts
Historic cultural material (May include any of the following items over 50 years old):
- Bottles, or other glass
- Milled wood, brick, concrete, metal, or other building material
- Trash dumps
- Homesteads, building remains
- Logging, mining, or railroad features
- Piers, wharves, docks, bridges, dams, or shipwrecks
- Shipwrecks or other submerged historical objects
Economic Resources at Risk – Summary
Socio-economic sensitive resources are facilities or locations that rely on a body of water to be economically viable. Because of their location, they could be severely impacted if an oil spill were to occur. Economically sensitive resources are separated into three categories: critical infrastructure, water dependent commercial areas, and water dependent recreation areas. The appendix provides a list of economic resources for this GRP area.
|Carson NFH||USFWS||Wind River||45.8682||-121.9740||14041 Wind River Hwy, Carson, WA 98610||509-427-5905|
|Little White Salmon NFH||USFWS||Little White Salmon||45.7227||-121.6397||56961 WA-14, Cook, WA 98605||509-538-2755|
|Spring Creek NFH||USFWS||Columbia River||45.7279||-121.5432||62301 WA-14, Underwood, WA 98651||509-493-1730|
|Willard NFH||USFWS||Little White Salmon||45.7661||-121.6313||5501B Cook-Underwood Rd, Cook, WA 98605||509-538-2305|
|Drano Lake Pens||USFWS||Drano Lake||45.7135||-121.6331||56961 WA-14, Cook, WA 98605||509-538-2755|
Flight Restriction Zones: The Environmental Unit (Planning Section) may recommend flight restriction zones to minimize disturbance or injury to wildlife during an oil spill. Pilots/operators can decrease the risk of aircraft/bird collisions, prevent the accidental driving of wildlife into oiled areas, and minimize abandonment of nests by keeping a safe distance and altitude from these identified sensitive areas.
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The Air Operations Branch (Operations Section) will manage all aircraft operations related to a response and will coordinate the establishment of any Flight Restriction Zones as appropriate. Environmental Unit staff will work with the Air Operations Branch Director to resolve any conflicts that arise between flight activities and sensitive resources.
In addition to restrictions associated with wildlife, Tribal authorities may also request notification when overflights are likely to affect culturally sensitive areas within reservations. See Oil Spill Best Management Practices (NWACP Section 9301) for more information on the use of aircraft and helicopters in open water and shoreline responses.
Wildlife Deterrence: The Wildlife Deterrence Unit within the Wildlife Branch (Operations Section) manages wildlife deterrence operations. These are actions intended to minimize injuries to wildlife by keeping animals away from the oil and cleanup operations. Deterrence activities may include using acoustic or visual deterrent devices, boats, aircraft or other tools. The Wildlife Branch works with state and federal agencies, and the Environmental Unit (Planning Section), to develop deterrence plans as appropriate.
For more information see the Northwest Wildlife Response Plan (NWACP Section 9310) and Northwest Area Wildlife Deterrence Resources (NWACP Section 9311).
Oiled Wildlife: Capturing oiled wildlife may be hazardous to both personnel and the affected animals. Incident personnel should not try to approach or capture oiled wildlife but should report any observations of oiled wildlife to the Wildlife Branch (Operations Section).
For more information see the Northwest Wildlife Response Plan (NWACP Section 9310).
Wildlife Refuges and Wilderness Areas: The Mark O. Hatfield Wilderness Area is located within the southwestern portion of this GRP region.
Aquatic Invasive Species: The waters of this region may contain aquatic invasive species (AIS) – species of plants and/or animals that are not native to an area and that can be harmful to an area’s ecosystem. If so, preventative actions may be required to prevent the spread of these species as a result of spill response activities and the Environmental Unit is able to recommend operational techniques and strategies to assist with this issue.