- Interim update: N/A
- Last full updated: 2017
- Public Comment: GRPs@ecy.wa.gov
Table of Contents
- Spill Contact Sheet (Download PDF)
- Response Strategies and Priorities (2-pagers) (Download PDF)
- Resources at Risk
- Record of Changes (Download PDF)
This section provides an overview of the area’s physical features, hydrology, climate and winds, and tides and currents in the Wenatchee River GRP planning area, and an oil spill risk assessment in Section 2.6. The Wenatchee GRP planning area is approximately 332 square miles, and resides in Chelan County. Fully or partially, it includes the towns or cities of Cashmere, Leavenworth, Merritt, Monitor, Peshastin, Plain, Sunnyslope, and Winton. Portions of WRIA 45 (Wenatchee) fall within this planning area, and includes: Chiwaukum Creek, Chiwawa River, Chumstick Creek, Eagle Creek, Icicle Creek, Nason Creek, Peshastin Creek, and the Wenatchee River. No tribal reservations are located within the planning area, but the Colville, Samish, Tulalip, and Yakama Tribes all have potential interests in the area. Major roadways include: Hwy 2, Hwy 97, Hwy 207, Hwy 209, and Hwy 285. BNSF is the only company that owns railroad track in this area. No contingency plan holding oil facilities or pipelines are located within the boundaries of this planning area. The Wenatchee River GRP is bordered by the WRIA- 7 (Skykomish) GRP to the west, and the proposed Upper Columbia River GRP to the southeast.
The Wenatchee GRP planning area is a large and diverse area stretching from the Cascade Mountain peaks to the dry sagebrush-covered lands of the Columbia Plateau. It covers approximately 332 square miles of land from Stevens Pass, then following Nason Creek east for almost 26 miles and then the Wenatchee River southeast for another 50 miles to just west of the city of Wenatchee. The main physical feature of this planning area is the Wenatchee River itself and the multitude (49) of tributary creeks and canyons. In most cases, only the last few miles of the tributary creeks prior to their confluence with the Wenatchee River are covered in this planning area. Longer portions of some creeks are present within the planning area, such as 11 miles of Chumstick Creek, and 7 miles of both Chiwaukum Creek and Icicle Creek. The waters of the Wenatchee River come from the east side of the Cascade Mountains, including the Alpine Lakes and Glacier Peak wilderness areas. Four large tributaries, the Chiwawa and Nason within the planning area, and the White and Little Wenatchee outside the planning area join at or near Lake Wenatchee to form the Wenatchee River. The Cascade Mountain area is characterized by heavy precipitation, with nearly 150 inches of precipitation occurring annually at points along the Cascade crest. Snow depths in the mountains typically range from 10 to 25 feet.
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The topography of the western part of the Wenatchee River watershed was most recently formed by large Pleistocene and Holocene glaciers. Evidence for these glaciations include moraines, outwash terraces, erratics, cirques, glacially sculpted bedrock, and abandoned drainages. The glaciers provided huge amounts of melt water that flowed downstream towards the Columbia River creating out wash deposits composed of deep deposits of silt, sand, and gravel. More recently rivers have scoured the bedrock and glacial deposits and redeposited them as sand and gravel terraces and plains. In this portion of the planning area, the land is very mountainous and heavily forested, with the Wenatchee National Forest being the primary land owner. The land is managed for multiple resources, with timber harvesting being one of the major uses.
From approximately Dryden east the land becomes increasingly more arid and less mountainous. The majority of the area above the river valley is comprised of shrub-steppe vegetation, where the soil becomes drier away from the river. The mean annual rainfall in the City of Wenatchee, just east of this planning area, is approximately 9 inches. Water from the Wenatchee River valley plays an integral role in irrigating farmlands near Peshastin, Dryden, Leavenworth, Cashmere, and Wenatchee. Farming is the major land use within the valley (NW Council 2004). Cashmere is the largest town in the planning area with a population of approximately 3,000. Other towns within the area include Merritt, Monitor, Plain, Sunnyslope, and Winton.
There are no tribal reservations within this planning area. Portions of this area were the traditional homelands of the Wenatchi people. The Wenatchi did not receive reservation land and most now live on the Colville Indian Reservation located to the northeast or the Yakama Reservation to the south. In addition to the Colville and the Yakama, the Samish, Snoqualmie, and Tulalip Tribes have potential interests in the area due to their usual and accustomed fishing places.
Stevens Pass is one of two passes through the Washington Cascades that is open year-round. From the top of the pass eastward Highway 2, BNSF railroad tracks, and a power line transmission corridor generally follow Nason Creek to the town of Winton. From here the railroad tracks continue east and then parallel Highway 209 following Chumstick Creek for about 10 miles south till they once again join with Highway 2 and the Wenatchee River at Leavenworth. Highway 97 is the only other major road in the planning area. It connects Interstate 90 and Highway 2 and follows Peshastin Creek to its confluence with the Wenatchee River. There are 87.6 miles of BNSF railroad track from where they enter the area at Stevens Pass to where they exit the area near Wenatchee. There is one power line transmission corridor which generally parallels Highway 2 as it travels east-west through the Cascade Mountains. These power lines bring electricity from the Columbia River Dams to the west side of the state.
The Wenatchee River drains the Central Cascade range and experiences high volumes of precipitation in the fall and winter, but the peak flows are in late spring and early summer from glaciers and mountain snowmelt. There are two diversion dams on the Wenatchee River and both are managed by the Chelan County Public Utility District. Because of the agricultural nature of the lower Wenatchee watershed, water levels in the valleys downstream of Leavenworth are used for irrigation in the summer. There are two USGS stations in the planning area tracking velocity and river height, located at Peshastin at river mile 21.5 and at Monitor at river mile 7.0. These gages show that the highest flows are from May to June, with an average flow from 7,900 cubic feet per second (cfs) to 8,600 cfs in June, and a monthly low of approximately 800 cfs in September (USGS).
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The tributaries downstream of the Peshastin gage – Brender, Mission, and Peshastin Creeks – contribute additional water to the Wenatchee River. The greatest difference in cfs between the two gages is in March while the smallest difference is in July.
The planning area resides within Water Resource Inventory Area Wenatchee (WRIA 45).
Wenatchee (WRIA 45): Many areas of central Washington are arid, receiving less than 20 inches of rain annually. Most of this precipitation arrives during the winter months when water demands are the lowest. During the summer, the snowpack is gone, there is little rain, and naturally low stream flows are dependent on groundwater inflow. At the same time the demand for water for human uses including irrigation are at the yearly maximum. This means that groundwater and surface water are least available when water demands are the highest (WA Dept. of Ecology).
Climate and Winds
The temperatures in the Wenatchee area remain mild year round, with winter lows above freezing, and highs in the mid-to-high 50s from July to August. Leavenworth averages 95 inches of snowfall in the winter months, and five inches of accumulation (WRCC 2016). Total precipitation averages 24 inches annually. In the upper part of the planning area, precipitation increases and temperature drops. Lake Wenatchee averages 37 inches of precipitation and 162 inches of snowfall (WRCC 2012).
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Wind speed at Skykomish State Airport averages 4.9 mph (WRCC 2006). Winds in East Wenatchee tend to blow in a westerly direction year-round. Chelan County experiences elevated wind speeds, typically in the fall and winter, with wind gusts reaching 51 mph. In 2016, the highest wind speed was recorded at 38 mph in early September (NOAA).
Tides and Currents
The flow speed on the Columbia River at the Peshastin gage (river mile 21.5) is 2.3 mph at the annual mean velocity of 3,600 cfs. Each portion of the river – and Nason Creek – will have faster or slower speeds based on a variety of factors, including channel width, channel depth, debris blockages, and elevation change, among others. The Wenatchee River does not experience any tidal influence.
The Wenatchee River is plentiful in natural, cultural, and economic resources, all at risk of injury from oil spills. Potential oil spill risks include, but are not limited to, road transportation, rail transportation, aircraft, and other oil spill risks. This section briefly discusses these risks and how they could impact the GRP planning area.
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Oil Types: Both refined petroleum products and crude oil are transported in bulk within this planning area.
Crude oil and refined products contain a mix of hydrocarbons with varying properties; different types of crude oil and refined products will behave differently when spilled. Recent changes in oil production have led to an increase in the movement of Bakken light crude transported through the planning area via rail.
Crude oil from the Bakken fields in North Dakota has properties similar to gasoline or diesel, and poses a higher risk of fire because much of it will evaporate quickly into flammable vapors. Unlike gasoline, the heavier hydrocarbons in the crude will persist in the environment after the light ends evaporate or burn. Bitumen from the oil sands in Alberta, Canada, is heavy, almost asphalt-like, until it is mixed with lighter oil products known as diluents to create diluted bitumen. Once mixed, the diluted bitumen will initially float on water after being spilled. Environmental conditions, such as the density of the receiving waters and sediment load of the receiving waters, will affect how long diluted bitumen floats. As the light diluents evaporate, the remaining heavy constituents may sink into the water column (NASEM 2016). There are specific response actions recommended for non-floating oils, detailed in the Non-Floating Oil Spill Response Tool in the Northwest Area Contingency Plan (NWACP), Section 9412.
Road Systems: Vehicle traffic on roadways pose an oil spill risk in areas where they run adjacent to the shorelines, or cross over lakes, rivers, creeks, and ditches, that drain into the Wenatchee River. The biggest road in the planning area is U.S. Highway 2 which runs in an east-west direction between Wenatchee and Monroe. Also U.S. Highway 97 follows Peshastin Creek and connects Interstate 90 to Highway 2 between the towns of Peshastin and Dryden.
A vehicle spill onto one of these bridges or roadways can cause fuel or oil to flow from hardened surfaces into the Wenatchee River or its tributaries. Commercial trucks can contain hundreds to thousands of gallons of fuel and oil, especially fully loaded tank trucks, and may carry almost any kind of cargo, including hazardous waste or other materials that might injure sensitive resources if spilled. Smaller vehicle accidents pose a risk as well, a risk commensurate to the volume of fuel and oil they carry.
Rail Transportation and Facilities: Rail companies transport oil via both unit trains and manifest trains in this area. Unit trains include: up to four locomotives, buffer cars, and 118 loaded tank cars transporting oil in 714-barrel (29,998 gallon) capacity USDOT-approved tank cars. Manifest trains include: up to four locomotives, a mix of non-oil merchandise cars, and one or more 714-barrel (29,998 gallon) capacity USDOT-approved tank cars carrying refined oil products, such as diesel, lubrication oil, or gasoline. These trains may include emptied tank cars, each with residual quantities of up to 1,800 gallons of crude oil or petroleum products. Every train locomotive typically holds a few hundred gallons of engine lubrication oil, plus saddle tanks that each have an approximate capacity of 5,000 gallons of diesel fuel. Manifest trains may also transport biological oils and non-petroleum chemicals.
Unit trains carrying crude currently operate on specific routes. Unit trains carrying crude from the Bakken Formation in North Dakota enter Washington State near Spokane, continue along the Columbia River to Vancouver, and then head north along I-5. After delivering crude oil to one of the refineries in western Washington, the trains will travel east over the Cascade Mountains on their way back to the Midwest. Within this planning area, BNSF Railway owns the majority of commercial railroad tracks as part of its Scenic subdivision. There is a direct-to-locomotive fueling location at the BNSF Yard in Wenatchee. Also, Union Pacific and other smaller railroads transport cargo through the area.
From the top of the pass eastward Highway 2, BNSF railroad tracks, and a power line transmission corridor, generally follow Nason Creek to the town of Winton. From here the railroad tracks continue east and then parallel Highway 209 following Chumstick Creek for about 10 miles south till they once again join with Highway 2 and the Wenatchee River at Leavenworth.
Aircraft: The Lake Wenatchee State Airport is the only airport within the WENA-GRP planning area. Managed by Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT), it is primarily used for recreational purposes. The airport is open from June to October (WSDOT). Since this airport is close to the Wenatchee River and Nason Creek, the potential exists for aircraft failures during inbound or outbound flights that result in an oil spill risk to the river or its tributaries.
Other Spill Risks: Other potential oil spill risks in the area include fuel storage areas (including waste oil storage), road run-off during rain events, on-shore or near shore activities where heavy equipment is being operated or stored, and the migration of spilled oil through soil on lands adjacent to the river or its tributary streams.
This chapter provides a summary of natural, cultural, and economic resources at risk in the planning area. It provides general information on habitat, fish, and wildlife resources, and locations in the area where sensitive natural resource concerns exist. It offers a summary of cultural resources that include fundamental procedures for the discovery of cultural artifacts and human skeletal remains. General information about flight restrictions, wildlife deterrence, and oiled wildlife can be found near the end of this chapter. A list of economic resources in the area is provided in the chapter’s appendix.
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This section is purposely broad in scope and should not be considered comprehensive. Some of the sensitive resources described in this section cannot be addressed in Response Strategies and Priorities because it’s not possible to conduct effective response activities in these locations. Additional information from private organizations or federal, state, tribal, and local government agencies should also be sought during spills and considered.
This material is presented with enough detail to give general information about the area during the first phase of a spill response. During an actual incident, more information about resources at risk will be available from the Environmental Unit in the Planning Section.
The information provided in this section can be used in:
- Assisting the Environmental Unit (EU) and Operations in developing additional response strategies beyond those found in Response Strategies and Priorities.
- Providing resource-at-risk “context” to responders, clean-up workers, and others during the initial phase of a spill response in the GRP area.
- Briefing responders and incident command staff that may be unfamiliar with sensitive resource concerns in the GRP area.
- Providing background information for personnel involved in media presentations and public outreach during a spill incident.
Natural Resources at Risk – Summary
Most biological communities are susceptible to the effects of oil spills. Plant communities on land, aquatic plants; microscopic plants and animals; and larger animals, such as fish, amphibians and reptiles, birds, mammals, and a wide variety of invertebrates, are all potentially at risk from smothering, acute toxicity, and/or the chronic long-term effects that may result from being exposed to spilled oil.
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The Wenatchee River area includes a wide variety of aquatic, riparian, and upland habitats. The area provides habitat to many of Washington’s anadromous salmonid species and affords a variety of habitat to many bird species as well. These varied habitats support a complex diversity of wildlife species, including large and small mammals; passerine (song) birds, raptors, upland birds, and waterfowl; reptiles; and amphibians. Due to their life histories and/or behaviors, some of these species are unlikely to be directly oiled during a spill incident but may be disturbed by other operations such as cleanup, reconnaissance, or fire suppression activities. Some of the bird species are resident throughout the year, but many others seasonally migrate outside the basin. A number of the species found in this area are classified as threatened or endangered under the Federal Endangered Species Act or Washington State guidelines.
Classification types are listed below, with the abbreviation of each type provided in the brackets (to the right of the classification):
- Federal Endangered (FE)
- Federal Threatened (FT)
- State Endangered (SE)
- State Threatened (ST)
- State Sensitive (SS)
Federal and State Threatened and Endangered species that may occur within this area, at some time of year, include:
- Common loon [SS]
- Northern spotted owl [FT/SE]*
- Yellow-billed cuckoo [FT]*
- Canada lynx [FT]*
- Gray wolf [FT/SE]*
- Grizzly bear [FT/SE]*
- North American wolverine [proposed FT]*
- Bull trout [FT]
- Chinook [FT]
- Steelhead [FT]
- Showy stickseed [FE]
- Wenatchee Mountains checkermallow [FE]
- Whitebark pine [candidate for federal listing]
*Unlikely to be directly oiled during a spill incident.
General Resource Concerns
- Many rivers and streams throughout this region provide spawning and rearing habitat for a variety of salmonid species (including Chinook, and coho salmon, as well as western slope cutthroat, rainbow, and steelhead trout). Passerine birds commonly nest in riparian habitats during the spring and summer.
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- Wetlands in this region range from freshwater emergent, freshwater forested, freshwater ponds and lakes. All wetland types support a diverse array of bird, insect and fish and wildlife species. The floodplain along the Wenatchee River contains numerous small wetland and ponds that attract waterfowl.
- Wenatchee River basin extends from the headwaters of Nason Creek in the high elevation crest of the Cascade Mountains (near Stevens Pass) to its confluence with the Wenatchee River. The Wenatchee River begins at the outlet of Lake Wenatchee. Nason Creek and the upper portion of the Wenatchee River basin is largely Forest habitat to the vicinity of Leavenworth, Washington. As the river descends in elevation along this contiguous forest the habitat transitions from alpine forest, to Douglas-fir dominated, and eventually terminating as a ponderosa pine dominated forest that fades into shrub-steppe or agricultural lands downstream of Leavenworth.
- Shrub-steppe habitat in this region supports many species of wildlife, including some that can only be found in these semi-arid communities – such as greater sage-grouse, sage sparrow, and sage thrasher.
- Agriculture, rangeland, and mixed environs are interspersed with the shrub-steppe habitat. This mix of agriculture, range, and shrub-steppe habitats dominate the area adjacent to the riparian zone along the Wenatchee River from approximately Leavenworth to its confluence with the Columbia River.
- Restoration site areas where significant efforts have been expended to restore natural functions in a degraded habitat.
Fish and Shellfish:
- Northwest salmonid species are present throughout this region, with spawning occurring in the Columbia River and its assorted tributaries. Juvenile salmonids use these streams for feeding, rearing, and migration corridors.
- Resident species including trout (cutthroat and rainbow) and various warm water species are also present throughout this area.
- Waterfowl concentrations of various species may be found throughout the region on rivers, creeks and ponds.
- Sensitive nesting species in the region include bald eagles, golden eagles, peregrine falcons, passerine birds, and great blue herons.
- Resident and migratory songbirds heavily utilize riparian habitats year-round and are susceptible to oiling/oil ingestion if riparian vegetation and shorelines become contaminated.
- Mammals common to the area include deer and elk, bats, and various semi-aquatic species such as muskrat, beaver, river otter, etc. Semi-aquatic mammals are largely dependent on riverine areas, ponds, tributaries, and riparian forests for den sites and foraging areas.
- Amphibians may be present in the undisturbed shallow lakes and emergent wetlands associated with this region.
Specific Geographic Areas of Concern – Overview
(Note: Includes sensitive sites in bordering GRP regions)
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Northern Portion of GRP Area
- Nason Creek Restoration projects: There are several stream restoration sites to enhance salmon and trout habitat in this are including Upper White Pine Floodplain reconnection
site, Lower White Pine reconnection site, and Lower Nason Creek restoration. Several raptor nests in this vicinity.
- Headwaters of Wenatchee River: Several raptor nests in this vicinity.
- Confluence of Nason Creek with Wenatchee River: Several raptor nests in this vicinity.
- Raptor nesting area: Several raptor nests in this vicinity.
Southern Portion of GRP Area
- Raptor nesting area: Several raptor nests in this vicinity.
- Restoration projects: There are several stream restoration sites to enhance salmon and trout habitat in this are including Dryden Fish Enhancement CMZ Project site, Gagnon CMZ
Off-Channel Habitat Project, and Cashmere Pond Off-Channel Habitat project.
- Great blue heron nesting: Heron rookery.
Specific Geographic Areas of Concern – Maps and Descriptions
Figure 1: Specific geographic areas of concern for the northern portion of the Wenatchee GRP.
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Figure 2: Specific geographic areas of concern for the southern portion of the Wenatchee GRP.
Cultural Resources at Risk – Summary
Culturally significant resources are present within the planning area. Information regarding the type and location of cultural resources is maintained by the Washington Department of Archeology and Historic Preservation (WDAHP). This sensitive information is made available to the Washington Department of Ecology for oil spill preparedness and response planning. The Tribal Historic Preservation Offices (THPOs) or Cultural Resource Departments of local tribes (see Table 6-1) may also be able to provide information on cultural resources at risk in the area and should be contacted, along with WDAHP, through normal trustee notification processes when significant oil spills, or smaller spills above reportable thresholds, occur in the area.
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During a spill response, after the Unified Command is established, information related to specific archeological concerns will be coordinated through the Environmental Unit. In order to ensure that tactical response strategies do not inadvertently harm culturally sensitive sites, WDAHP should be consulted before disturbing any soil or sediment during a response action. WDAHP and/or the Tribal governments may assign a person, or provide a list of professional archeologists that can be contracted, to monitor response activities and cleanup operations for the protection of cultural resources. Due to the sensitive nature of such information, details regarding the location and type of cultural resources present are not included in this document.
Table 6-1: WENA-GRP Cultural Resource Contacts
|Washington Department of Archaeology and Historic Preservation||(360) 586-3080||Rob.Whitlam@dahp.wa.gov|
|Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, THPO||(509) firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Samish Indian Nation||(360) email@example.com|
|Snoqualmie Tribe||(425) 888-6551||Steve@snoqualmietribe.us|
|Tulalip Tribes||(425) firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Confederated Tribes of the Yakama Indian Nation||(509) email@example.com|
Discovery of Human Skeletal Remains
Any human remains, burial sites, or burial-related materials that are discovered during a spill response must be treated with respect at all times (photographing human remains is prohibited to all except the appropriate authorities). Refer to Section 9403 of the Northwest Area Contingency Plan for National Historic Preservation Act Compliance Guidelines during an emergency response.
Procedures for the Discovery of Cultural Resources
If any person monitoring work activities or involved in spill response believes that they have encountered cultural resources, all work must be stopped immediately and the Incident Commander and Cultural Resource Specialist notified. The area of work stoppage must be adequate to provide for the security, protection, and integrity of the material or artifact(s) discovered.
Prehistoric Cultural Resources: (May include, but are not limited to, any of the following items)
- Lithic debitage (stone chips and other tool-making byproducts)
- Flaked or ground stone tools
- Exotic rock, minerals, or quarries
- Concentrations of organically stained sediments, charcoal, or ash
- Fire-modified rock
- Rock alignments or rock structures
- Bone (burned, modified, or in association with other bone, artifacts, or features)
- Shell or shell fragments
- Petroglyphs and pictographs
- Fish weirs, fish traps, and prehistoric water craft
- Culturally modified trees
- Physical locations or features (traditional cultural properties)
Historic Cultural Material: (May include any of the following items over 50 years old)
- Bottles, or other glass
- Milled wood, brick, concrete, metal, or other building material
- Trash dumps
- Homesteads, building remains
- Logging, mining, or railroad features
- Piers, wharves, docks, bridges, dams, or shipwrecks
Economic Resources at Risk – Summary
Socio-economic sensitive resources are facilities or locations that rely on a body of water to be economically viable. Because of their location, they could be severely impacted if an oil spill were to occur. Economically sensitive resources are separated into three categories: critical infrastructure, water dependent commercial areas, and water dependent recreation areas.
Flight Restriction Zones: Flight restriction zones may be recommended by the Environmental Unit (Planning Section) for the purpose of reducing disturbances that could result in injury to wildlife during an oil spill. By keeping a safe distance or altitude from identified sensitive areas, pilots can lessen the risk of aircraft/bird collisions, prevent the accidental hazing of wildlife into oiled areas, and avoid causing the abandonment of nests.
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Implementation of Flight Restriction Zones will take place within the Air Operations Branch (Operations Section) after a Unified Command is formed. The Planning Section’s Environmental Unit will work with the Air Ops Branch Director to resolve any potential conflicts with flight activities that are essential to the spill response effort. Typically, the area within a 1,500-foot radius and below 1,000 feet in altitude is restricted to flying in areas that have been identified as sensitive; however, some areas have more restrictive zones. In addition to restrictions associated with wildlife, Tribal authorities may also request notification when overflights are likely to affect culturally sensitive areas within reservations. See Section 9301.3.2 and Section 9301.3.3 of the Northwest Area Contingency Plan for more information on the use of aircraft and helicopters in open water and shoreline responses.
Wildlife Deterrence: After a Unified Command is formed, the Wildlife Branch (Operations Section), in consultation with the appropriate trustee agencies and the Environmental Unit, will evaluate wildlife deterrent options for the purpose of keeping un-oiled birds away from oil during a spill. The “Bird Deterrence Unit” in the Wildlife Branch would participate in operations. Deterrence options might include the use of acoustic or visual deterrent devices, boats, aircraft or other situation-appropriate tools. For more information see the Northwest Wildlife Response Plan (NWACP Section 9310 and Northwest Area Wildlife Deterrence resources (NWACP Section 9311).
Oiled Wildlife: Attempting to capture oiled wildlife can be hazardous to both the animal and the person attempting the capture. Response personnel should not approach or attempt to recover oiled wildlife. Responders should report their observations of oiled wildlife to the Wildlife Branch so appropriate